# KernelSolve reduction (with LazyTensors)

Let’s see how to solve discrete deconvolution problems using the conjugate gradient solver provided by the `pykeops.torch.LazyTensor.solve()` method of KeOps `pykeops.torch.LazyTensor`.

## Setup

Standard imports:

```import time

import torch
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt

from pykeops.torch import LazyTensor as keops
from pykeops.torch import Vi, Vj
```

Define our dataset:

```N = 5000 if torch.cuda.is_available() else 500  # Number of points
D = 2  # Dimension of the ambient space
Dv = 2  # Dimension of the vectors (= number of linear problems to solve)
sigma = 0.1  # Radius of our RBF kernel

b = torch.rand(N, Dv)
g = torch.Tensor([0.5 / sigma**2])  # Parameter of the Gaussian RBF kernel
alpha = 0.01  # ridge regularization
```

Note

This operator uses a conjugate gradient solver and assumes that formula defines a symmetric, positive and definite linear reduction with respect to the alias `"b"` specified trough the third argument.

Apply our solver on arbitrary point clouds:

```print("Solving a Gaussian linear system, with {} points in dimension {}.".format(N, D))
start = time.time()
K_xx = keops.exp(-keops.sum((Vi(x) - Vj(x)) ** 2, dim=2) / (2 * sigma**2))
cfun = keops.solve(K_xx, Vi(b), alpha=alpha, call=False)
c = cfun()
end = time.time()
print("Timing (KeOps implementation):", round(end - start, 5), "s")
```
```Solving a Gaussian linear system, with 5000 points in dimension 2.
Timing (KeOps implementation): 0.27174 s
```

Compare with a straightforward PyTorch implementation:

```start = time.time()
K_xx = alpha * torch.eye(N) + torch.exp(
-torch.sum((x[:, None, :] - x[None, :, :]) ** 2, dim=2) / (2 * sigma**2)
)
c_py = torch.solve(b, K_xx)[0]
end = time.time()
print("Timing (PyTorch implementation):", round(end - start, 5), "s")
print("Relative error = ", (torch.norm(c - c_py) / torch.norm(c_py)).item())

# Plot the results next to each other:
for i in range(Dv):
plt.subplot(Dv, 1, i + 1)
plt.plot(c.cpu().detach().numpy()[:40, i], "-", label="KeOps")
plt.plot(c_py.cpu().detach().numpy()[:40, i], "--", label="PyTorch")
plt.legend(loc="lower right")
plt.tight_layout()
plt.show()
```
```Traceback (most recent call last):
File "/home/code/keops/pykeops/pykeops/examples/pytorch/plot_test_invkernel_torch_helper.py", line 65, in <module>
c_py = torch.solve(b, K_xx)[0]
File "/opt/conda/lib/python3.10/site-packages/torch/_linalg_utils.py", line 104, in solve
raise RuntimeError(
RuntimeError: This function was deprecated since version 1.9 and is now removed. Please use the `torch.linalg.solve` function instead.
```

Compare the derivatives:

```print(cfun.callfun)

print("1st order derivative")
e = torch.randn(N, D)
start = time.time()
end = time.time()
print("Timing (KeOps derivative):", round(end - start, 5), "s")
start = time.time()
end = time.time()
print("Timing (PyTorch derivative):", round(end - start, 5), "s")
print("Relative error = ", (torch.norm(u - u_py) / torch.norm(u_py)).item())

# Plot the results next to each other:
for i in range(Dv):
plt.subplot(Dv, 1, i + 1)
plt.plot(u.cpu().detach().numpy()[:40, i], "-", label="KeOps")
plt.plot(u_py.cpu().detach().numpy()[:40, i], "--", label="PyTorch")
plt.legend(loc="lower right")
plt.tight_layout()
plt.show()
```

Total running time of the script: ( 0 minutes 0.434 seconds)

Gallery generated by Sphinx-Gallery